By Clifford Warwick
Having isolated ourselves from the natural world, do humans have misconceptions of welfare in the wild?
A common perception is that life in nature is “cruel”. Environmentally related attrition is beset by hardship, and predator-prey encounters are bloody and brutal – “nature red in tooth and claw”. Case closed! Not necessarily. Modern research and concepts could start challenging some old presumptions about suffering in the natural world and point to human “nature” as the real cruelty culprit.
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